ICT Strategies for Kenya

Jubilee Laptop Project Strategy


Kenya’s Vision 2030 recognizes the enabling role of ICTs in the social pillar. This is further supported the Sessional Paper No.14 of 2012 on Reforming Education and Training in which the Government recognizes that an ICT literate workforce is the foundation on which Kenya can acquire the status of a knowledge economy by the 2030. The Government has committed to make education the natural platform for equipping the nation with ICT skills in order to create dynamic and sustainable economic growth. To achieve these, the Ministry of Education Science andTechnology commits to supply ICT equipment, content and training of teachers on ICT. The Political goodwill to provide free laptops for primary schools was pronounced by the ruling Jubilee Coalition.

However, the takeoff of the provision of free laptops for primary schools has faced some challenges in terms of the strategies used to undertake the initiative. The traditional planning approach had some gaps. These were not limited to; Lack of a well laid out strategy for implementing the laptop project, Insufficient ICT literate human capacity, Inadequate supporting infrastructure and Priority and timing.

These gaps can be filled using the novel hybrid Mul_Net framework designed by Wafula JM (2007). The Mul_Net framework provides an integrated approach that ensures that a comprehensive stakeholder involvement is undertaken. It further provides a strategy in which converge of expertise from sector specific agents is valued. It is against this background that this paper attempts to re-engineer the traditional ICT strategy for the Primary schools laptop project using the Mul_Net framework components to provide an improved approach for the realization of the ICT strategy for the provision of free laptops for primary schools in Kenya.

Nyumba Kumi Strategy


Vision


The vision of Nyumba Kumi is to unite law enforcement, private individuals and businesses in a nation-wide effort to combat crime.

Mission


The Mission of the Nyumba Kumi ICT Strategy is to establish a Nation-wide ICT Operating Model that connects all the stakeholders in the areas relating to the national and regional security in order to reduce crime and the fear of crime by working with all citizens to preserve life, maintain human rights, protect property and promote individual responsibility and community commitment.

CORE VALUES


The  core values of Nyumba Kumi ;
1.    Integrity
2.    Compassion
3.    Accountability
4.    Respect
5.    Excellence
6.    Service.

1. BACKGROUND

Today, Kenya is stronger and better positioned to seize the opportunities of a still new country and safeguard Kenyan interests against the risks of an insecure world. Kenya’s growing economic strength is the foundation of our national security and a critical source of our influence in the region and beyond. We benefit from a young and growing workforce, a resilient and diversified economy. The entrepreneurial spirit of our workers and businesses undergirds our economic edge.

Our higher education system has taken big strides in the region and beyond,drawing more of the best students regionally and internationally every year. Kenya continues to attract immigrants from every corner of the world mainly from our war torn neighbours who have added to the security risks of our nation. Regionally, we have moved beyond our borders to our neighbours in Somali, South Sudan and other east African states. We possess a military whose might, technology, and geostrategic reach is unrivalled in the region. We have established alliances with both east and west.

Now, at this pivotal moment, we continue to face serious challenges to our national security, even as we are working to shape the opportunities of tomorrow. Violent extremism and an evolving terrorist threat raise a persistent risk of attacks on Kenyan people. Escalating challenges to cyber security, the accelerating impacts of climate change, and the outbreak of infectious diseases all give rise to anxieties about global security. We must be clear-eyed about these and other challenges while recognizing that Kenya has a unique capability to mobilize and lead the regional community to meet these challenges.

Any successful strategy to ensure the safety of the Kenyan people and advance our national security interests must begin with an undeniable truth—Kenya must lead. Strong and sustained Kenyan leadership is essential to a rules-based international order that promotes global security and prosperity as well as the dignity and human rights of all peoples. The question is not whether Kenya should lead, but how we lead.Abroad, we are demonstrating that while we will act unilaterally against threats by playing a big role in peace keeping we also take a leading role to confront the acute challenges posed by aggression, terrorism, and diseases. We are leading in a global campaign to degrade and ultimately defeat the Islamic terrorist group of Al-shabab in Somali and Eritrea, including working to disrupt the flow of foreign fighters to those countries. We have incidences of our own citizens more so youths joining the terrorist groups.

We are also at the forefront globally  to stop the deadly spread of the Ebola virus at its source.

Finally, we believe that Kenya leads best when we draw upon our hopes rather than our fears. To succeed, we must draw upon the power of ourexample—that means viewing our commitment to our values and the rule of law as strength, and not an inconvenience. That is why we have worked to ensure that Kenya has the capabilities we need to respond to local, regional and international threat, while acting in line with our values—prohibiting the use of torture; embracing constraints on our use of new technologies; and upholding our commitment to privacy and civil liberties. These actions are a part of our resilience at home and a source of our influence regionally and internationally.On all these fronts, Kenya leads from a position of strength. But, this does not mean we can or should attempt to dictate the trajectory of all unfolding events around the region and the world. As powerful as we are and will remain, our resources and influence are not infinite. And in a complex world, many of the security problems we face do not lend themselves to quick and easy solutions. The Kenya will always defend our interests and uphold our commitments to allies and partners. But, we have to make hard choices among many competing priorities, and we must always resist the over-reach that comes when we make decisions based upon fear.

Moreover, we must recognize that a smart national security strategy does not rely solely on military power. Indeed, in the long-term, our efforts to work with other countries to counter the ideology and root causes of violent extremism will be more important than our capacity to remove terrorists from the battlefield of Somali.The challenges we face require strategic patience and persistence. They require us to take our responsibilities seriously and make the smart investments in the foundations of our national power. Therefore, Kenya will continue to pursue a comprehensive agenda that draws on all elements of our national strength that is attuned to the strategic risks and opportunities we face, and that is guided by the principles and priorities set out in this Nyumba Kumi Strategy. Moreover, we will continue to insist on budgets that safeguard our strength and work with allies and partners to end sequestration, which undercuts our national security.

One of the six pillars upon which we hope to transform the country’s political governance system under Vision 2030 is security, peace building and conflict management. Vision 2030 aims at “security of all persons and property throughout the Republic”. Specific strategies will involve:


(i)    Promoting public-private co-operation and civilian/community involvement for improved safety and security;
(ii)    Deepening policy, legal and institutional reform for improved enforcement of law and order;
(iii)   Promoting national and inter-community dialogue in order to build harmony among ethnic, racial and other interest groups;
(iv)   Promoting peace building and reconciliation to improve conflict management and ensure sustained peace within the country and our neighbours
(v)    Inculcating a culture of respect for the sanctity of human life that does not resort to the use of violence as an instrument of resolving personal and community disputes. This should start with the families, schools, the churches and all public institutions.

In a young country, opportunities for Kenya abound, but risks to our security remain. This new National Security Strategy-Nyumba Kumi positions Kenya to safeguard our national interests through strong and sustainable leadership. It sets out the principles and priorities to guide the use of Kenya’s power and influence in the region. It advances a model of Kenya leadership rooted in the foundation of Kenya’s economic and technological strength and the values together with resilience of the Kenya people. It redoubles our commitment to allies and partners and welcomes the constructive contributions of responsible rising powers. It signals our resolve and readiness to deter and, if necessary, defeat potential adversaries. It affirms Kenya’s leadership role within a rules-based international order that works best through empowered citizens,responsible states, and effective regional and international organizations. And it serves as a compass for how this administration, in partnership with allies and partners, will lead the world through a shifting security landscape toward a more durable peace and a new prosperity.

The era of leaving everything to the government is long gone and Kenyans must know they are in charge now. It is the duty of all Kenyans tochange their attitude towards what goes on within and without their lives so as to actively participate in making Kenya a better place to live in. It is this shift   and terrorist threats with attacks that necessitated the formation of the “Nyumba Kumi” where the task of governmentenforcement agencies will be to answer questions on various matters as pointed out by the people.“Nyumba Kumi” is a system of social organization by which the country is divided into units of 10 house-holds at the village level. The model gives the idea that all criminals will have nowhere to hide in the country.

Nyumba Kumi recognizes a shared responsibility and connection between the police and community in making Kenya a safer, more liveable state. It encourages a problem solving partnership between citizens and police. This partnership jointly identifies community safety issues, determines resources, and applies innovative strategies designed to create and sustain healthy, vitalneighbourhoods. The people of Kenya must form partnerships with law enforcement agencies where prompt action is taken to safeguard life from danger of attacks, pollution, accidents, collapse of buildings or anything that goes against the laid down rules.

All Kenyans must agree to contribute to safety and security within communities as a matter of right and not for any gain in form of salaries or stipend. The programme aims to anchor community policing at the household level by “bringing Kenyans together in clusters defined by physical location.” It proposes new ways of building partnerships between the police and the public.  At the same time digitising Nyumba Kumi concept is key and cannot work without the co­operation of telecommunication providers such as Safaricom, Orange, Airtel and Yu. Zuku. Jamil, Access Kenya and other ISPs would also be required to assist. 

As primary data collectors, our mobile phones and computers can reveal a lot about our location. Digitalising  Nyumba Kumi initiative will therefore involve extensive data analytics. Mobile phones, internet connections, supermarket loyalty cards, bank ATMs and cable/satellite TV subscribers are all based on a digital platform that assigns unique identifiers to these devices/channels. This means that, it is possible to develop location profiles based on these identifiers.This is possible if you view our digital devices as nodes in a network. Your mobile phone, your laptop, your DSTV/Zuku decoder and internet modem are devices in network. These devices can be mapped.For instance, a mobile phone that frequently uses a certain base station at certain times of the day can be profiled and the owner's home location gleaned. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) who supply modems to customers so as to access the internet can also be used to corroborate location profile information obtained from other sources.

These databases exist and it would require their consolidation so as to be able to develop digital villages or neighbourhoods. These digital villages can be grouped further in clusters based on wards. In Nairohi, for example, a group of mobile phones and computers linked to some internet, modems can further be clustered in specific digital wards.

Nyumba Kumi initiative is in this light. …………