Sand river storage is water harvesting and storage in reservoirs designed to hold both water and coarse sand. The main structure is normally a dam constructed across a sand river. A sand river, on the other hand, is an ephemeral river mostly found in arid and semi-arid areas, and which carries short lived but heavy flash floods, laden with sand. The sand deposits originate from the upper catchments. Because the dry river beds are filled with sand, water in these rivers does not flow above the surface, it however flows slowly beneath the surface through the voids between the sand particles.