1. BACKGROUND TO THE COURSE
Agriculture in Kenya plays a big role in creating self employment and generating income for the rural population. The sector contributes 27% of GDP in Kenya as well as more than 18% of wage employment and more than 50% of exports revenue. Horticulture alone contributes 11%, livestock production contributes 10% of GDP (of which 3% is realized from dairy sub-sector). However, there has been declining competence in the production, processing and marketing. Thus, there is need for highly qualified agricultural managers and administrators to provide the necessary policy environment and management acumen both at the public and private sector levels. This would ultimately sustain and expand production, value chain management for the local market, raw materials for the processing industry, and exports. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Agricultural Economics and Rural development is therefore aimed at bringing about the realization of this potential, particularly in rural areas where we have bulk of the agricultural activities. The program aims to produce graduates with problem solving skills and apply them to up-scale agricultural productivity, value chain management and improve marketing of agricultural products on both small and large-scale farms. This will contribute towards improving the living conditions of people and creating wealth and prosperity by working either in the outdoors or in the business environment of agricultural and natural resource industry management/supervision aspects, such as human resources, finance, equipment and the environment.
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
The broad objective of the program is to create and develop manpower with practical management knowledge and problem solving skills to improve and increase agricultural productivity, expand marketing processes and trade. The ultimate goal is to attain development in rural communities with sustainable balance of natural, and environmental resources and agricultural production systems.
2.2. Specific Objectives
At the end of the program the graduates should be able to:
(a) Demonstrate the importance of agriculture in the national economy with particular importance to its contribution to development among rural communities in Kenya.
(b) Integrate the contribution of environmental and natural resources to sustainable agriculture and rural development
(c) Apply the acquired knowledge and practical skills to up-scale agricultural productivity, supply chain management and improve marketing of agricultural products on both small and large-scale farms.
(d) Make use of the problem solving skills acquired to participate in creating a policy environment to sustain an integrated continuum of our agricultural systems from utilization of resources, production, processing and manufacturing, marketing and consumption of food products.
(e) Participate in international research, outreach programs and teaching in various aspects of agricultural economics and management. These activities inform our domestic efforts and enable us to address important problems and opportunities in Kenya’s food, agriculture and natural resource sectors.
(f) Promote environmental and natural resource conservation by encouraging and effecting policies and practices that minimize soil erosion and pollution.
3.0. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
3.1. A candidate wishing to be admitted into the Bachelor of Science degree programme in Agricultural Economics and Rural Development must satisfy the minimum University entry requirements and Faculty of Agriculture regulations.
3.2. In addition to the above, the candidate must have obtained a minimum aggregate mean of C+ (plus) and a C (plain) in each of the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics Physics/Geography/Agriculture OR C (plain) in each of the following subjects: Biological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematics/Geography/Agriculture or any of the Group IV subjects at K.C.S.E. or an A Level equivalent.
3.3. Alternatively, admission shall be granted to holders of Diploma in Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Health, Animal Production and Husbandry, Farm Management or other equivalent qualifications from institutions recognized by JKUAT (with credit and above) from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology or from other institutions recognized by the University Senate. Such candidates shall enter the programme at the second year of study unless otherwise specified by the Faculty. Holders of a pass diploma with 2 years relevant experience may be admitted in 1st year of study.
4.1. A student in the Bachelor of .Science degree programme in Agricultural Economics and Rural Development shall during his/her three or four years of study take a minimum of 16 compulsory units in each year. One unit is equivalent to 45 contact hours.
4.2. All students shall be required to undertake two practical attachments during the second and third years of study for a period of not less than eight (8) weeks each.
5.0. REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
AGR.1 No candidate shall be admitted to the Faculty of Agriculture without satisfying the Minimum entry requirements of the university.
AGR. 2. Candidates must also satisfy faculty regulations and departmental requirements before registering for courses in any department.
AGR. 3. In addition to the AGR 1 and AGR 2 above the candidates are expected to:
(a) Have a minimum aggregate of C+ (Plus) in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) and should have a minimum grade of C (plain) in each of the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics/Physics/Geography.
(b) Alternatively, admission may also be granted to candidates with a Diploma in Animal Health/Animal Husbandry or Production/Diploma in Agriculture and related disciplines from a recognized institution or its equivalent.
(c) Candidates admitted under AGR 3 (b) above with credit pass and above may be admitted into the second year of study, while those with pass will be admitted in into the first year of study.
(d) For candidates admitted under Joint Admission Board (JAB), JAB will fix cut-off points for each admission year.
DURATION OF THE PROGRAM
(a) The duration of study for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness Economics and Food Industry Management, Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness Management and Entrepreneurship development, Bachelor of Science in Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Bachelor of Science in Food Science and Nutrition, Bachelor of Science in Horticulture, Bachelor of Science in Environmental Horticulture and Landscaping Technology and Bachelor of Science in Animal Health, Production and Processing and Bachelor of Science in Land Resources Planning and Management, shall normally extend over a period of four but not more than five and six academic years.
(b) The academic year shall be divided into two semesters.
(c) Candidates admitted with Diploma in relevant disciplines with a minimum grade of credit into the Bachelor of Science degree program in the Faculty of Agriculture, as per the Departmental entry requirements, may be considered for exemption in units equivalent to one academic year. Such students shall join the relevant program at the start of the second year of study, unless otherwise specified by the respective department.
(a) Faculty of Agriculture courses are taught in units. A unit is defined as the equivalent of 45 one-hour lectures spread over one semester. For this purpose two hours of tutorial or three hours of practicals are equivalent to one-hour lecture. Eight (8) weeks of practical attachment is equivalent to one unit.
(b) Also one hour lecture is equivalent to an equivalent amount of other assigned study or practical experience or any combination of these that may be approved by the Faculty Board of Agriculture.
(c) A candidate taking a degree course within the Faculty of Agriculture is required to take a combination of units approved by the Faculty of Agriculture. Such combination may be modified only after obtaining the consent of the Dean and Chairmen of the relevant departments, and only within the first three weeks of the academic year.
(a) A candidate within the Faculty of Agriculture may take units from the following departments
(i) Department of Food Science and Technology
(ii) Department of Horticulture
(iii) Department of Environmental Horticulture and Landscaping Technology
(iv) Department of Animal Health, Production and Processing
(v) Department of Land Resources Planning and Management
vi) Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
(b) The Units to be studied for the degree of Bachelor of Science programs in the Faculty of Agriculture shall be as prescribed in the Departments of Food Science and Technology, Department of Horticulture, Department of Animal Health, Production and Processing, Department of Land Resources Planning and Management and Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
(d) A unit taught jointly between departments will be counted as a single unit.
Enrolment for units outside the Faculty of Agriculture is possible provided it is approved by the Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture in consultation with the relevant Dean/Director.
In the first year of study a candidate shall be required to take a minimum of sixteen (16) units distributed as follows:
(a) Two University units and HIV/AIDS:
(i) Communication Skills HRD 2101
(ii) Development Studies HRD 2102
(iii) HIV/AIDS SZL 2111
(b) One Faculty of Agriculture unit: Introduction to General Agriculture and Agrometeorology, AHS 2101.
(c) Thirteen (13 units) required by the relevant departments.
(a) A candidate for the Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Food Science and Technology, and Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Horticulture and Department of Animal Health, Production and Processing, Department of Land Resources Planning and Management, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics in the second, third and fourth year of study shall have a minimum of sixteen (16) units in any one year of study.
(b) A candidate in the Faculty of Agriculture shall be required to undertake practical attachment for a period of not less than eight (8) weeks each year during the second and third years of study for the Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Department of Horticulture, Department of Animal Health, Production and Processing, and Department of Land Resources Planning and Management and Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
A candidate shall be allowed to take AUDITED unit (s) during any year of study in consultation with the Department(s) concerned. However, the audited units shall not be counted towards the classification of the degree but shall appear on the transcript.
STUDENT ASSESSMENT POLICY
(a) Continuous Assessment Tests (CATs)
Students shall undertake at least three continuous assessment tests for each of the units in which they are registered. The weighting shall be as per AGR 12 (e) for units that are 100% practicals and those that are not.
At the end of the semester, the students shall sit an end-of -semester examination for the units in which they are registered, as per AGR 12 (e), unless the unit is 100% practical
(c) Practical assessment
For units with practical component as part of their instruction, this component shall be assessed and its weighting shall be as per AGR 12 (e).
(d) Other assessments
The students will be subjected to other assessments whose weighting shall be as per AGR. 12 (e)
(a) All units shall be examined during the semester in which they are taken.
(b) The examination pass mark in each unit shall be 40 % of the total marks.
(c) No candidate shall be allowed to sit for examinations without attending at least two-thirds of the lectures and all practicals.
(d) The University examinations shall consist of papers each covering one unit during the semester. The time allowed shall be two hours per paper, except in drawing that shall be three hours.
(e) Continuous Assessment shall contribute 30% and written university examinations shall contribute 70% of the total marks, except where a course consists solely of practical work, it shall be assessed 100% by continuous assessment test, coursework and/or laboratory assignments. The weighting for continuous assessment in units that have practicals shall be as follows:
- 15% Practicals
- 5% Assignments
- 10% Test assessment
Where a course has no practicals or laboratory assignments the weighting of the continuous assessment shall be composed of 20% tests, and 10% assignments.
(f) Practical attachment shall be assessed and graded on pass or fail basis.
(g) A candidate who misses an examination without a valid reason shall be deemed to have failed the examination, and shall be awarded a score of zero in the specific examination.
(a) In order to proceed unconditionally to the second, third, and fourth year of study for the Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Horticulture, and Animal Health, Production and Processing, Agricultural and Resource Economics, candidates must pass in all the required units.
(b) Candidates must pass in all the required units in the final year of study in order to qualify for the award of their respective degree, as specified in AGR. 22.
Each unit shall be graded out of 100% and the pass mark for each unit shall be 40% of the total marks. These marks shall be translated into literal grades as follows:
- 70% and above =A
- 60% and above but less than 70% =B
- 50% and above but less than 60% =C
- 40% and above but less than 50% =D
- Below 40% =, E (fail)
(a) A candidate shall be permitted to sit supplementary examinations in failed units up to a maximum of five units in the Faculty of Agriculture, in any one year of study.
(b) Supplementary examinations shall normally be held at the end of the academic year during which the units have been taken.
(c) The maximum marks in supplementary examinations shall be 40% and shall not include continuous assessment marks.
(d) A candidate who fails a unit evaluated wholly by continuous assessments shall be required to carry out additional work for examination during the supplementary examination period.
(a) If though unavoidable circumstances such as bereavement or sickness candidate is unable to sit for one or more examination papers, or is unable to undertake essential parts of the work for the continuous assessment the candidate may, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board of Examiners and with the approval of the Senate, be permitted to take special examinations or undertake extra work for continuous assessment.
(b) Special examinations shall be graded out of 100% and shall include continuous assessment marks.
(a) A candidate who fails a maximum of two supplementary units shall be allowed to proceed to the next year of study to re-sit the units, during the next time the units are being offered. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.
(b) A candidate who fails more than two but less than six units after sitting supplementary examinations shall be allowed to register and re-sit the failed units externally in the subsequent academic year. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.
(c) A candidate who fails in six (6) or seven (7) units at the ordinary university examinations in any given year of study shall be allowed to sit Supplementary Examinations but shall be allowed to repeat the failed units externally during the subsequent academic year. The candidate shall have the option of attending classes subject to payment of appropriate fees for all the failed units. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.
(d) A candidate who fails to attend at least two-thirds of the lectures and all practicals in any unit(s) subject to a maximum of 6 or 7 units in any academic year, shall be required to re-do the unit(s) subject to AGR. 16 (a & b). Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.
(e) A candidate who fails in one or less than six units prescribed under the final year of study during Supplementary Examinations shall re-sit the failed units externally in the subsequent academic year during the Ordinary Examinations when the units are offered. Such a candidate shall be deemed to have repeated the year of study.
(f) During the entire period of study, no candidate shall be allowed to repeat any year of study twice.
(g) During the entire period, no candidate shall be allowed to repeat a total of more than two years of study in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Horticulture, Animal Health, Production and processing, Land Resources Planning and Management and Agricultural and Resource Economics.
(a) A candidate may be re-admitted to the year of study from academic leave, or on compassionate grounds such as bereavement or sickness, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board of Examiners and with the approval of the Senate.
(b) A candidate who has been re-admitted after completing the first semester of academic year successfully shall be allowed to register only for the second semester of the academic year he/she is being re-admitted into. The results of the examinations taken in the first semester shall stand.
(a) A candidate who fails in eight (8) or more units at the ordinary University examination in any academic year shall be DISCONTINUED.
(b) A candidate who fails a unit after a total of four attempts shall be DISCONTINUED.
(c) A candidate who fails in any unit after re-sitting externally, even after Supplementary
Examinations shall be DISCONTINUED.
(d) A candidate who repeats the year of study after failing six (6) or seven (7) units at the Ordinary University Examinations as per AGR. 16(d) , and subsequently fails in any unit during the Supplementary Examinations at the end of the repeating year shall be DISCONTINUED.
(e) A candidate who absconds from the program at any level, shall be deregistered on the grounds of abscondment.
At the end of each academic year, candidates shall be provided with a transcript in form of literal grades for the units taken during the year with one of the following recommendations:
(i) Proceed to the next year of study.
(ii) Repeat the year externally
(iii) Proceed to the next year of study conditionally
(v) Degree to be awarded.
APPEAL FOR RE-ASSESSMENT
(a) A candidate may appeal to the Registrar (Academic Affairs) for a re-marking of a written examination paper on payment of appropriate fee that the senate shall determine from time to time, and on surrendering the transcript on which the grade for the concerned unit has been recorded, if already issued.
(b) The final mark recommended by the appointed examiner(s) shall be the final mark and grade awarded to the candidate for the unit.
(c) No appeal for re-marking of any units shall be entertained four weeks (one month) after the candidate has been notified of the results.
(a) A candidate found guilty of any irregularities during any continuous assessment or University Examinations shall be subject to disciplinary action as per the University Examination Regulations.
(b) The Senate Examination Disciplinary Committee regulations shall apply in all examination disciplinary cases.
(a) To be considered for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of Agriculture, a candidate must have passed all the required units in their respective departments.
(b) No candidate shall be awarded the degree without passing practical attachments, and HIV/AIDS.
(c) The Final Year Project (Research Projects II and III) shall be assessed through a written report and Viva voce presentation. The student must pass in this unit in order to graduate and it also counts towards degree classification.
(c) No candidate shall graduate without taking and passing all the units as per AGR.23 (a) and (b) as the case may be
CLASSIFICATION OF DEGREE
(a) The final classification of the Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Horticulture, Animal Health, Production and Processing and Land Resources Planning and Management, Agricultural Economics and Rural development shall be based on the 64 required units taken during the four years of study. The 64 required units shall not include SZL 2111- HIV/AIDS unit
(b) The final classification of the Bachelor of Science degrees in the Department of Food Science and Technology, and in the department of Horticulture, Department of Animal Health, Production and Processing and Department of Land resource Planning and Management, Agricultural and Resource Economics and for candidates admitted with exemption of units equivalent to one academic year shall be based on the 48 required units taken during the three years of study. The 48 required units shall not include SZL 2111- HIV/AIDS unit.
(a) A candidate who qualifies for the award of the degree shall be placed in one of the four categories namely
- First Class Honours
- Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
- Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
(b) A candidate who has repeated any year of study shall not be awarded an Honours degree.
(c) The total marks for the degrees specified in AGR.23 will be averaged to two decimal points to arrive at the final classification. The degree shall be graded as follows:
- 70% and above = First Class Honours
- 60% and above but less than 70% = Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
- 50% and above but less than 60% = Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
- 40% and above but less than 50% = Pass.
FEES AND RELEASE OF RESULTS
A candidate’s registration for courses, release of results and awarding of the Degree shall be subject to the candidate fulfilling all University Regulations concerning payment of fees and other monies due to the University.
EVALUATION OF TEACHING
(a) All the examinations shall be set by the internal examiners responsible for teaching the respective units, following the departmental set guidelines and moderated by the external examiners to ensure quality.
(b)The external examiners shall check the marked scripts after they have been marked by the internal examiners to ensure fairness and consistency in marking and overall quality of the process.
c) To ensure that the quality of staff is high and up to the task, they shall undergo staff assessment by the University as well as by the students
6. COURSE UNIT CATEGORIES AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Beyond the introductory courses in basic biological, and physical sciences leading to an understanding of agriculture, the department offers courses in a number of areas of emphasis. These areas are listed below, along with their respective course offerings:
AER 2101 Principles of Microeconomics
AER 2201 Intermediate Microeconomics
AER 2103 Principles of Macroeconomics
AER 2207 Intermediate Macroeconomics
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
AER 2102 Introduction to Agricultural & Resource Economics
AER 2205 Agricultural Production Economics
AER 2309 Agricultural and Resource Enterprise Analysis
AER 2401 Farm Management
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND TRADE
AER 2206 Principles of Marketing
AER 2302 Agricultural Marketing
AER 2310 Agricultural Commodities Marketing
AER 2402 Agricultural Price analysis
AER 2411 International Agricultural Trade
AER 2203 Agricultural Accounting
AER 2301 Agricultural Finance
ECONOMICS OF DEVELOPMENT
AER 2204 Community Development
AER 2209 Agriculture and Rural Development
AER 2305 Rural Economy and Development
AER 2312 Agro-Industrialization and Rural Development
AER 2407 Development Economics
ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS
AER 2208 Introduction to Environmental Economics
AER 2314 Environmental Economics
AER 2406 Introduction to Natural Resource Economics
AER 2202 Mathematics for Economists
AER 2303 Introduction to Econometrics
AER 2311 Operations Research
AER 2403 Agricultural Project Analysis
MANAGEMENT OF AGRI-FOOD SYSTEMS
AER 2211 Organizational Theory and Management
AER 2307 Agribusiness Value Chain Management
AER 2404 Agricultural Co-operative Management
AER 2405 Strategic Management
AER 2304 Agricultural Baseline Surveys and Qualitative Research
AER 2313 Research Methodology
AER 2315 Proposal and Report Writing
AER 2212 Field Attachment I
AER 2316 Field Attachment II
AER 2413 Research Project (2 Units)
AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND POLICY
AER 2318 Agricultural Law
AER 2410 Agricultural Policy
AER 2412 Institutional and Behavioral Economics
AGRICULTURAL SOCIOLOGY AND EXTENSION
AER 2210 Rural Sociology
AER 2309 Agricultural Extension and Education
AER 2306 Agriculture and Food Security
AER 2408 Rural Wealth Creation
HRD 2401 Entrepreneurship Skills
AME 2101 Small Business Enterprise Development
BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES
In the department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, students in the Bachelor of .Science degree programme in Agricultural Economics and Rural Development will be required to undertake the following courses:
HRD 2101 Communication Skills
AHS 2101 Agriculture and Agro Meteorology
SMA 2160 Mathematics I
SCH 2111 Inorganic Chemistry
SBT 2350 Agricultural Botany
SZL 2106 Zoology for Agriculture
HRD 2102 Development Studies and Social Ethics
SZL 2111 HIV/AIDS
SCH 2108 Organic Chemistry
SMA 2161 Mathematics II
AHS 2130 Crop Production
AHS 2103 Animal Production
SMA 2262 Statistics
ICS 2110 Information Technology I
AHS 2208 Soil Genesis, Physics and Classification
AHS 2205 Principles of Horticulture
ICS 2215 Information Technology II
ABE 2322 Introduction to Farm Power and Machinery
AHS 2410 Sustainable Agriculture
SPH 2260 Physics
7.0. COURSE STRUCTURE
7.1 The course units for the degree program are listed below. All the courses are equivalent to one unit, unless otherwise specified.